Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to expand your understanding of how film constructs meaning using both traditional narrative as well as iconic representations presented through images and sounds.
Assignment: Write a thesis-driven essay in which you examine ONE scene from a film scheduled to be viewed in class.
Ways to Proceed: First, pick a scene for analysis. It should be one that is important in terms of plot development as well as one that uses filmic apparatuses to artfully construct meaning in the film.
Once you pick a scene, watch it once for an overall impression of the scene. Pay close attention to everything that happens in the scene. What is the initial impact of the scene on you? Are you left happy by the scene? Sad? Anxious? Confused? How does the scene help to set the tone for the film? How does it fit into the overall scope of the film? Is this a revelatory scene? Does it show us something that we have not seen before? Is it a scene integral to narrative development?
Next, watch the scene again, but this time, take notes as you watch. Note camera angles, shots, lighting, sound, narrative. All of these will help you to analyze the scene. You must learn to interpret how film constructs meaning by both traditional and non-traditional methods. Once you learn to look for how film constructs meaning, then you can begin to examine the scene as an opportunity for analysis.
Finally, figure out what the overall impact and / or message of the scene is. As you ponder this, you will want to consider the events that transpire in your scene. Is there dialogue? Is there action? How does the film construct meaning beyond the actions and words of the characters in the film? What film techniques do you see employed in this scene? What are the shot angles? Are there close ups? Establishing shots? Crane Shots? Are there abrupt cuts? Slow fades? Steadicam? Extended shots without cuts? Use of montage? Does the scene violate the 180 degree rule? Does use of sound help to construct meaning? Is there music? What is the music? How does it help construct meaning? Is there information entering the film from outside the diagetic world created by the camera? Is there anything in the scene that draws your attention to the filmic apparatus? How does all of this affect your understanding of the scene?
When you write, your thesis should point out what you think the overall meaning and / or impact of the scene is. It should be organized in a logical manner. You can consider both traditional narrative strategies as well as those which are more commonly associated with film. However, you should not jump all over the place. Move from common to uncommon, known to unknown, familiar to experimental; however, don't jump back and forth between forms. If you're talking about how sound constructs meaning, don't abruptly go to how shots are cut in the film, only to return later to sound in the scene. If you're looking at cuts, look at cuts. Don't move from the visual to something else (e.g., dialogue, soundtrack, etc.) and then come back to the visual later. Stay focused on the task at hand before moving on. Remember this: you don't have to examine everything in a scene. You only have to discuss those portions of the scene that are the most relevant to however you are interpreting the scene.
Criteria for Evaluation: Your scene analysis should be typed, double-spaced, one inch margins (top, bottom, left, right), twelve point font (Courier, Arial, Garamond, etc.). Your paper should be between 5-7 pages. I expect your essay to display proper use of MLA formatting. Your scene analysis must utilize between 6-10 filmic concepts / terms associated with the specific jargon / terminology associated with the construction / narration / compilation of the film medium. You are required to include a glossary at the end of your essay that describes, in your own words the concepts / terms utilized in your essay. It is like a "Works Cited" page, but it should instead be called a "Terminology Utilized" page. This page will count in your final page count for your essay.
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The aim of this video is to demonstrate how cinematic techniques are used to show meaning and visually express moods and themes.
It uses two scenes from the movie American Beauty (American Beauty IMDb Page) —the two office scenes featuring Lester (Kevin Spacey) and Brad (Barry Del Sherman). I’ve kept the video short and simple, so it should be suitable for anyone interested in learning about movie making.
The cinematic techniques discussed in the video are related to mise-en-scène collegefilmandmediastudies.com/mise-en-scene-2, which is the term used to describe everything ‘put into the scene’. In this video, I focus on décor, lighting and props, costumes, body language (e.g., posture, gestures and facial expressions) and composition. I also look at how these elements are framed in terms of camera height, camera angle and camera distance, all of which fall under the category of cinematography (classes.yale.edu/film-analysis/htmfiles/cinematography.htm).
1st Scene: Lester’s Performance Review (Focus on Lester)
1st Meeting: Lester
The scene appears early on the movie. At the beginning of American Beauty, the protagonist, Lester Burnham is disillusioned with his life. At home he and his materialistic, ambitious wife can barely stand each other, and his sullen teenage daughter cannot stand either of them. At work, he is going nowhere, trapped in a thankless and meaningless job writing for a media magazine.
In this scene, Lester is having his performance reviewed by Brad, his company’s recently hired efficiency expert. Brad tells him that his work is not up to standard and that if he wants to keep his job, he will have to start performing. What’s interesting in this scene is how differently the two men are presented visually.
Let’s look at Lester first. As this is a wide shot, Lester occupies a small portion of the frame, which makes him look rather small. This shot is also a high angle shot, which makes him look even smaller. He is in the middle of a mostly empty room, totally exposed. His body language&mdash:slouched in his chair, legs spread—gives off an aura of weakness and resignation, and his facial expression shows his exasperation and frustration. He can’t even keep his tie straight. He looks powerless and vulnerable.
This shot is a like a point-of-view shot, as if we are looking at Lester from Brad’s position. However, the downward angle is exaggerated. Rather than looking at Lester strictly from Brad’s physical point of view, we seem to be looking at him from Brad’s mental and emotional point of view. We are looking at a small and unimportant man.
In terms of décor and lighting. the room itself is ugly, utilitarian, dimly lit, poorly decorated and is horribly dull and grey. Behind Lester, there is just a dying plant stuck in a corner and a painting that is too small for the wall. The décor reveals what kind of organization Lester works for—one that sucks the life and light out of its employees.
In terms of composition, the framing of the shot is ugly as well. Lester is positioned in the centre bottom of the frame, which is a strange place to put the main subject. There is far too much headroom above him, his feet seem to be cut off, a ceiling light juts down into the top of the frame. It’s an ugly shot in a dark, ugly room; it serves as a visual manifestation of Lester’s discontent and unease.
1st Scene: Lester’s Performance Review (Focus on Brad)
The following image shows how Brad is presented in the same scene.
1st Meeting: Brad
Here the shot is a mid-shot, and Brad occupies a large portion of the frame. The low angle mid shot emphasizes his power, especially when juxtaposed with the high angle wide shot of Lester that we just looked at. When Brad stands up, the low angle shot is further emphasized.
Visually, Brad is presented as being dominant. His posture his straight, he is younger, he is dressed more fashionably and his facial expressions reveal smugness and contempt.
Behind him, the vertical Venetian blinds create a visual pattern that brings to mind the bars of a jail cell or cage. To Lester, his job is like a prison.
Note the furniture and props positioned around Brad: his desk, his brightly shining nameplate, the gold pens, the paper holder, the portrait behind him, the Venetian blinds. Almost everything is straight edges, angles and points. Everything is hard and sharp. You can think of this scene as a battle: Brad is protected by his desk and is surrounded by his sharp edged weapons; Lester has..a dying plant. There will only be one winner in this battle.
In terms of lighting, the room is brighter where Brad is. Brad’ career at this moment in time is certainly outshining Lester’s.
In short, the visual elements in this scene work together to emphasize Brad’s dominance over Lester, the soul-destroying nature of Lester’ workplace and Lester’s sense of hopelessness and disappointment.
Beware of Oversimplification
Before moving on to discussing the next scene, I would like to clarify one point. The use of a single film technique in isolation doesn’t carry a specific meaning. A good example would be the low angle shot of Brad. A low angle shot does not necessarily imply power; it could also be used to establish a point of view (e.g., from the point of view of a character lying down and looking up at someone or from the point of view of a shorter person or creature), to create a comical, grotesque and/or ironic effect or to exaggerate a physical action such as jumping or hurdling.
In the scene from American Beauty, the low angle shot works TOGETHER with a variety of different elements to create the effect of dominance:
- The plot (Brad is threatening Lester’s career)
- The acting (Brad and Lester’s body language, their words their intonation)
- The elements of mise-en-scène mentioned above (lighting, decor, props, wardrobe)
- The contrasting shots of Lester (high angle wide shots, dim lighting, ugly decor, etc.) that precede and follow it
If you are analyzing cinematic techniques, it is important to consider them in context.
2nd Scene: Lester Quits
Mid-way through the film, the two men meet again. By this point in the movie. Lester has decided he needs to make a change. In this scene, Lester is quitting his dead-end job AND blackmailing the company into paying him off. Emotionally, he is in a very different place.
When the camera is looking over Lester’s shoulders at Brad, Lester‘s head dominates the screen.
2nd Meeting (Lester Quits): Brad
When we go to the reverse angle shot looking over Brad’s shoulder, Brad’s head is out-of-focus and slightly off-screen.
2nd Meeting (Lester Quits)
Lester dominates the screen in both shots. Brad is no longer so important, no longer so powerful. And all those sharp edges, the pointy gold pens, the massive nameplate—those have become small, unnoticeable, unremarkable pieces of stationery.
Lester’s posture is now relaxed and confident. He is in control.
The room is brighter. Lester is no longer trapped in gloomy darkness.
The shots are now more aesthetically pleasing in terms of composition and framing. For example, the shots of Lester are composed so as to follow the rule of thirds. This more attractive (and more conventional) composition reflects Lester’s newly found feelings of being at ease.
Everything has changed. The whole look is different.
In a commentary by the director Sam Mendes and the cinematographer Conrad Hall, the two men discuss how they tried to show Lester’s emotional growth by making him look bigger on screen as the film progresses. And we can see that growth clearly in the two examples. In the first scene, the cinematic techniques that were discussed reveal the power differential between Brad and Lester and show Lester’s disappointment, frustration and vulnerability. In the second scene, they show how Lester has become emotionally stronger and more hopeful.
In this video, I have only touched on a few cinematic elements related to mise-en-scène and cinematography and have not touched upon things like dialogue, editing, sound or music. I have also left out things like blocking , cameras level, depth of field, film stock, keying (e.g., high key versus low key lighting) aspect ratio, tonality, camera movement (e.g., zoom, pan. tilt, tracking shots, etc), shot duration and editing.
There is a lot more to discuss when interpreting a scene , but hopefully this video can give you an idea how different visual elements can work together to help tell a story.
Why American Beauty?
I chose to use American Beauty, because the director (Sam Mendes) and cinematographer (Conrad Hall), who both won Academy Awards for their work on this movie, did an amazing job visually presenting the story and its themes. You can see that each shot has been set up, framed and shot to bring out a plot and/or thematic element. The only problem with using this film as a teaching aid is that many of the scenes contain swearing or coarse language (which is why I didn’t show the entire meetings in this film analysis video)
This is the second video in my film analysis series. You can view the first one here:
Fight Scene Cinematography in Hero and The Bourne Identity.
This features an analysis of the different ways filmmakers strive to capture a sense of realism in action sequences.
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